Friday, May 24, 2013
AP Spring Final Review
Luther translated the Bible into German while hiding in the castle of Frederick the Wise.
The result of this meeting was that German princes could choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism as the state religion of their domain - Peace of Augsburg .
Catholic responses to the Reformation included: strengthening the Inquisition, creating a list of banned books and creating of the Jesuit order to spread Christianity through education.
Calvin and Luther were more successful than earlier reformers like Jon Hus and Erasmus because Calvin and
Luther used common language and printing techniques.
John Calvin believed God has already predetermined who will be saved, God is all powerful and salvation is gained by faith alone.
The Counter Reformation tried to reorganize and reform the Catholic Church.
The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared that Henry VIII was head of the Church of England.
During the English Civil War, the Cavaliers supported the monarchy while the Roundheads supported Parliament.
The English Bill of Rights declared: no peacetime army without Parliament’s consent, no excessive bail or cruel punishment, members of Parliament had freedom of speech and only Parliament can impose a tax.
After 1700, the Parliament, led by a Prime Minister wielded the most power in the English government.
Russia’s westernization program under Peter the Great included: reformation of the Russian military and use of western technology, building of a new capital called Petersburg, and promotion of French clothing and culture at court.
Russia’s interactions and interests in the West from 1650 to 1800 did not alter the fundamental agricultural characteristics of Russia.
Catherine the Great built schools for girls in an attempt to improve their standing in society.
The Russian monarchs quieted their nobles by allowing them to treat their serfs like slaves.
Louis XIV had the MOST success in controlling the power of the nobles within its territory.
The policies pursued by Louis XIV include: the maintenance of a huge standing army, the creation of the palace at Versailles, and the promotion of economic development through mercantilism.
The mystique of power of the absolute rulers of France was maintained through choreographed audiences, banquets, and official duties with wardrobes of designs and colors no one else was allowed to wear.
Colbert is credited with strengthening the economy of France.
New art forms created in Louis XIV’s France included: classicism, ballet, baroque, and rococo.
In the Gunpowder Empire of Tokugawa Japan there was the most brutal persecution of people who practiced a different faith than the rulers.
The Tokugawa controlled the powerful lords by developing an alternate attendance system requiring that the nobles live in Edo every other year.
The term “floating worlds” refers to the entertainment and pleasure districts of Japanese cities.
Devshirme molded young men, with no loyalties to families or provinces, to serve monarchs in the military and the bureaucracy of the Ottoman .
The Ottoman system of Devshirme took young Christian boys away from home and family, converted them to Islam, educated them and then filled government and military positions with these men loyal only to the Emperor.
At the Siege of Vienna, the Ottoman cannons got stuck in the mud, due to bad weather.
Coffee houses were popular in the Ottoman Empire, but were seen by moralists as “dens of iniquity”.
Suleiman achieve a majestic, Godly presence because no one was allowed to speak to him in public, just make slight gestures.
Economic conditions in China under the Ming and Qing included agricultural production that kept up with population growth for most of the period with the introduction of new foods from the Americas, there was a growing commercial market internally and externally for porcelain, silks and tea, and the government tightly regulated trade with foreigners.
Akbar’s answer to the religious diversity and tension of India was to create a syncretic religion called the “Divine Faith” that all could partake in.
All absolute monarchs of the Gunpowder Age created monumental architecture.
Bentley suggests that the Asian empires like the Qing, Mughal and Ottoman fell behind technologically during the 18th and 19th centuries because the governments favored political and social stability over technological innovations.
France and Songhai both had improved agricultural techniques. France and Songhai both came to power by defeating an enemy. France was religiously intolerant while Songhai was religiously tolerant. France had a homogenous population while Songhai had ethnic diversity.
In the demographic shift of the Columbian Exchange era: up to 90% of Native Americans died from disease or exploitation, approximately 10 million Africans were imported to the New World, and marriage between Europeans and natives created new ethnic groups.
Encomienda had few protections for workers while repartimiento was more favorable.
Environmental impacts of the colonization and exploitation process include: whaling around the Pacific Islands, overgrazing by imported European livestock, and mercury poisoning of soil near mines.
A positive effect of the Columbian Exchange was the introduction of new crops to Eastern Hemisphere.
Results of the introduction of horses into the Americas include: bison were hunted year round, permanent homes were replaced by tepees, and native women’s economic roles diminished.
An “Ingenio?” is a sugar or silver refinery.
The Dutch and English used the “Black Legend” of Spain as propaganda against the Spanish colonialism.
Coffee, cacao, and tea were all goods considered luxury and in high demand.
Trade from Mexico to Asia was carried out using Manila Galleons.
Deism was rational, like science, many philosophes were Deists, and believed the universe obeys laws started by God.
The middle class who orchestrated the Enlightenment were called the bourgeoisie.
Laissez-faire – hands off the economy. Tabla rasa – the mind is a blank paper at birth. cogito ergo sum – I think therefore I am
The idea of government as “an agreement by consent of the governed” is an example of a social contract.
Galileo was called the “most persistent” because he discovered much proof and attempted to stand up to the Church.
John Locke believed all knowledge comes from experience, as the mind is a blank slate at birth.
The impact of science on the philosophy of the 17th and 18th century included: the world was seen as a giant clock and God as the clock maker, men began to believe that through reason they could improve social institutions, and Europeans accepted the world as an orderly, harmonious place run by a set of natural laws.
During the Enlightenment: reforming parts of society was a goal, enlightenment figures put great faith in education, and natural laws were believed in by those of the Enlightenment.
The significance of Newton’s work includes: confirmation of the work of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, the fusion of empirical observation and Cartesian mathematics and the development of the law of gravitation.
The Enlightenment rested on the belief that the universe was governed by natural and understandable laws, faith in scientific method and the belief that people are innately good, but they are corrupted by their environment.
Science transformed European society in the period of 1750-1914 by the fact that kings endowed observatories and founded museums, science was used for useful medical advancements and middle class women were establishing botanical gardens and attending lectures on science.
The idea that the private decisions of individuals act as an “invisible hand” to economic decisions that benefit everyone, was put forth by Adam Smith.
Condorcet and other Enlightenment philosophes believed that the only “instrument given to us for grasping and recognizing the truth” was reason.
The Atlantic Revolutions were spearheaded by the bourgeoisie (middle class).
The American colonialists’ grievances against the government of Britain included: violation of their rights to due process in judicial procedures, anger over the closing to settlement of lands west of the Appalachians, and revenue taxes being imposed without input from local legislative bodies.
Concerning the American Revolution: an initial cause was actually that America was ignored by the British, enlightened ideas played a major role in the causes and results of the revolution, and assistance from Europe was vital in obtaining independence from Britain.
Frederick von Steuben organized the American forces at Valley Forge.
The inherent unfairness of the French Estates General led directly to the Tennis Court Oath.
Robespierre headed the Jacobins.
In the opening stages of the Haitian Revolution, white settlers demanded the right to govern themselves.
Haiti’s revolution’s result was the MOST radical departure from pre-revolutionary society?
Dessalines and Toussaint were “Black Jacobins.”
The Latin American independence movements are not always accepted as revolutions because there was no dramatic change in the social or economic structure of the societies.
Simón Bolivar and José San Martín: met at Guayaquil to discuss who would control central South America, however, Bolivar had the assistance of the llaneros while San Martin allied with O’Higgins, and neither man was interested in redistributing land to the masses of Indians and mestizos.
The major difference between the way Brazil achieved independence and the way other states of Latin America became independent was Brazil became a monarchy, whereas the Spanish states became “republics”.
Pedro Gonzaga was the last emperor of Brazil.
The onset of the Industrial Revolution involved a series of related developments including: finding and applying sources of power, mechanization of production and building factories .
A major result of the enclosure movement was it provided labor for factories.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because Britain had an abundance of labor, capital, and natural resources.
The majority of 19th century female workers across the globe were involved in the textile industry.
The middle class benefited from the Industrial Revolution more than the working class.
Marx believed: what gives a product value is labor, that there will not be a need for government once the wealth is evenly distributed, all history is a series of class struggles, and the revolution will be violent.
In Japan, industrialization took place with the active support of imperial authorities.
Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand exported primary goods but also underwent economic development and industrialization.
Socialism is best defined as a philosophy where the state as an agent of the community owns some of the means of production.
The middle class gender identity of the 18th-19th century included: men were the primary providers, women were in charge of running the home and providing comfort for husbands and children, and men used their leisure time constructively for self improvements in order to become appropriate models for their sons.
Industrialization led to: movement of rural farm workers to urban industrial cities, reverse migration of some groups, like Italians and Chinese, back to their homelands, and movement of people from Eastern and Southern Europe to the United States for job opportunities.
The government played a significant role in fostering industrialization in BOTH Japan and Russia.
The Industrial Revolution spread because transportation facilities like canals and railroads were being built.
The Industrial Revolution spread slower in Germany than other parts of Europe because it was not united as a state and industrialism in Russia, Japan, and Egypt occurred with considerable help from Western industrialized states.
Humanitarian liberals believed that the state should intervene when the actions of some individuals work against the best interests of other individuals.
By the end of the 1800’s: factory workers lived in slums filled with tenements, the standard of living was increasing, and women made less than men holding similar jobs.
Utopian socialists wanted individuals to live in cooperative settlements, owning the means of production in common and sharing the products of their labor.
The labor system where entrepreneurs paid individuals to work in their homes is called “putting-out” system.
Luddites were a protest group who were against industrialization.
In Jonathan Swifts’ Modest Proposal: Swift seems to show a prejudice against Catholics and Jews, Swift claims the economy will increase, and Swift believes that women will be treated better under his proposal.
Eli Whitney used interchangeable machined parts in gun making.
Owen, Bentham, Engels and Dickens were all critics of capitalism.
The real, underlying purpose of Jonathan Swift’s Modest Proposal was to bring attention to possible food shortages.
At the Seneca Falls Conference twelve resolutions were passed demanding lawmakers grant women rights.
The major reason for the 1884-85 Berlin Conference was to partition Africa among the European powers.
Herbert Spencer and Arthur DeGobineau justified the domination of Europeans over other people by applying the scientific principles of natural selection to human conditions.
The "Canton system" was a system that restricted Europeans to trading in Canton and was formalized by a decree.
A constitution of Japan was the “Gift from the Emperor” of Japan.
Cecil Rhodes, by the age 35, had almost completely monopolized diamond mining in Africa and controlled 90% of the world's diamond production.
Ram Mohan Roy argued, in India, for a society that used both the benefits of western technology and the preservation of native cultural and religious traditions.
The Great Game was the name for the competition for colonies between Britain and Russia in Asia.
Tunisia was outwardly ruled by the bey (a local prince), but really controlled by the French. This is an example of a protectorate.
The Fashoda Affair and the Boer War were both imperial incidents between whites competing for Africa.
Britain intervened in Egypt in repeatedly to protect her interest in the Suez Canal.
Extraterritoriality is the term that means: the right of a foreigner to be tried for a crime according to the laws of their nationality and in a court of the nation of his origin.
In the Congo, King Leopold II and his corporation, the International African Association exploited the region for its rubber, the exploitation was so excessive, that Leopold was forced to transfer ownership to the Belgian government, and the imperialism system destroyed the social and economic structure of the natives in the region.
Cecil Rhodes and Leopold II got black African natives to work in their mines and on their plantations by chibbaro: taxing them and demanding payment in hard currency.
Neocolonialism in Latin America was different from that of Africa or Asia in that the nations retained their independence despite the loss of control over their economic affairs.
Tea growing in Ceylon and rubber plantations in Malaya caused the destruction of the native ecology of the regions, the migration of indentured labor to work these plantations, and the use of subject people to provide raw materials for imperialists.
The Sepoy Rebellion can best be explained as an expression of general resentment against British ignorance of Indian cultural.
Siam was a buffer state. By this, it remained independent because it was located between two European colonies, and neither wanted war with the other, so they did not try to claim it.
British “settler colonies” include Australia, Canada and New Zealand.
Tactics used by Gandhi in his struggle against the British Raj include nonviolent protest tactics (satyagraha), peaceful boycotts, strikes and noncooperation, and mass demonstrations.
The purpose of American and European imperialism in the Pacific islands was mainly to set up coaling stations and supply depots.
The social and economic impact of imperialism on indigenous people included the destruction of native craft industries by an influx of inexpensive machine-made goods, the replacement of subsistence agriculture with cash export crops and demographic shifts, and ethnic conflict caused by the use of indentured labor.
The statement "If American artisans are to be kept employed the year around, we must have access to the markets of Asia", indicates that industrial nations need to begin looking for non industrialized regions as sources for selling goods.
1900 - Present
The causes of the Mexican Revolution were that only 2% of people owned land, there was economic dependency on the United States, and economic inequality between rich and poor.
The Mexican constitution of 1917 limited the power of the Catholic Church., improved working conditions, and implement land reforms.
All of the following were influential in causing the Chinese Revolution of 1910: imperialist pressure from the West, failed attempts at government reform, and the Boxer Rebellion.
The purpose of the Boy Scouts was to teach self-sacrifice and patriotism to young men.
During World War I, the Germans sent Vladimir Lenin home to Russia and created instability, the continuation of the war led to the collapse of democratic reform in Russia, and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended Russia’s involvement in World War I.
The point of the Balfour Declaration was to support a Jewish homeland.
Sir Henry McMahon, in his letter to Ali Ibn Husain, promised a guarantee of protection for holy places in the Middle East, assistance for the Arabs to organize a suitable form of government, and independence of Arabs in the lands controlled by the Sharif of Mecca.
Pan-Slavism was actively promoted by Russia in the Balkans. This gave them influence in the region.
The western front in World War I was a bloody stalemate.
The Japanese entered World War I because of their desire to acquire German colonies in Asia.
The Battle of Gallipoli is historically significant because it resulted in Australia and New Zealand developing nationalist ambitions and becoming pacifist.
The key factor in the United States decision to enter World War I was the unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman note.
Poems like “On Flanders Fields” important literary forms during World War I because they were used as forms of protest or as nationalistic propaganda.
The Mandate system angered the Arab world because it was little more than a glorified form of imperialism.
A long term effect of World War I was the U.S. becoming the leading economic power.
Self-determination is the term for the idea that people with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states.
Woodrow Wilson objected to the war guilt clause of the Treaty of Versailles.
The Twenty-One Demands were an attempt by Japan to establish a kind of protectorate over China.
Military innovations used widely in WWI included chlorine and mustard gas, hard-shelled balloons called Zeppelins used against civilians, submarines, and super battleships called Dreadnoughts.
The Egyptian revolt of 1919 was because Egyptian leaders were denied permission to travel to Versailles for peace talks, the Wafd party became a focus for nationalism, and food shortages spread discontent.
One indirect and deadly result of WWI was a influenza pandemic that killed over 30 million people.
Surrealism, Les fauves and Dadaism are art movements associated with the 1920’s.
A troubling economic problem in the USA in the 1920’s that was a cause of the Depression was over production and under consumption leading to falling prices.
Most of the female carpet workers in the Middle East from 1750 to 1914 were Christians and Jews because they were less restricted by religious traditions.
Industrialization did little to change the roles of most women.
Women’s roles remain unchanged in the era 1750-1914; women were still dominated by their male counterparts.
The education of women affected nationalist movements of 1914-1950 because better educated women pushed for independence.
In seizing and maintaining power in the 20th century, the communists and the fascists both came to power during an economic and political crisis.
Japan’s expansion in the Pacific was facilitated by failure of the League of Nations to adopt substantive measures against her when she took Manchuria, civil war between the Communist and Nationalists Chinese which weakened China’s resistance, and American preoccupation with the Depression and developments in Europe.
As a result of the New York Stock Market crash, the United States’ loans to Europe began to be recalled.
Directly related to the increasing urbanization of America during the 1920’S was the rise of the automobile, which helped bring the cities and the country together, education levels that increased as urban schools grew, and the demand for food products went down as many farm workers moved to industrialized cities.
Food prices went down in America in the 1920’s because U.S. & Canadian wheat production expanded, overproduction caused prices to slump ,and decreased production in Europe led to growth of U. S & Canadian production.
Under the NEP (New Economic Plan) Lenin retreated from socialism and nationalization and returned to partial capitalism.
During the Depression most nations practiced economic nationalism.
Hitler annexed the Sudetenland because he claimed it was inhabited by German speaking people.
Right wing dictatorships commonly conscripted men to serve in army, opposed liberal democracy, and nationalized all major industries.
The MOST important difference between a totalitarian state and a democracy is that a totalitarian state has a single political party.
Totalitarian regimes blamed outside forces for troubles, were characterized by violence & neopaganism, and were often linked to racism and xenophobia.
Authoritarians and Totalitarians stressed that authoritarian states share a rejection of parliamentary rule, the use of propaganda and terror and state directed economies .
The explanation for the failure of France and Britain to completely support the economic sanctions in the Ethiopian crisis was that they were deep in the Depression and failed to bring attention to the issue.
World War II ended similarly to World War I in that the economies of Europe were devastated.
The Soviet Union did not suffer from the world wide Depression because the Soviets were not involved in global trade.
The first 5 year plan was the most successful with diminishing results afterwards.
The factors that determine the behavior of bystanders during a time of genocide include bystanders feeling fear, intimidation, and brainwashing.
War is often used to cover up the existence of genocide.
During the genocide in Nanking, Chinese soldiers hiding in the city were hunted down, Japanese soldiers indiscriminately killed men, women and children, and Japanese military traffic drove over the bodies of the dead.
In the genocide in Rwanda: the majority Hutus attacked the minority Tutsis, the Tutsi were used as a scapegoat for Rwanda’s problems, and the Belgians initiated the problem by favoring the Tutsi.
The genocide in Bosnia targeted Muslims, and was called ethnic cleansing by the Serbs; Marshall Tito had kept those ethnic rivalries from flaring up previously while he ruled Yugoslavia.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, the Helsinki Conference on Security and Cooperation, and Amnesty International are an international organizations dedicated to protecting human rights and preventing genocide.
The British left Palestine, turning the region over to the United Nations; this directly led to the creation of the state of Israel in 1948.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was the policy that claimed the Soviet Union had a right to intervene if communism was threatened in another communist nation.
Worldwide economic instability following World War I was caused by declining agricultural prices as a result of overproduction, insistence among the industrial powers that their WW I debts must be paid, and the erection of protective tariffs.
Algerian independence was a bloody affair, as witnessed by an attempt to assassinate Charles de Gaulle, a large number of pieds noirs (settlers) being massacred at Setif ,and the full scale revolt Berbers and Arabs.
Nelson Mandela, Robert Mugabe, Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah were all held as political prisoners.
Decolonization was either violent: Indonesia independence from the Dutch, Algeria from the French or nonviolent: Burmese and Ghana independence from the British, Philippines independence from the U.S. and Ceylon’s independence from the British.
The May Fourth movement was when the students in China rioted against the Japanese Imperialism.
Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech is considered as declaring the beginning of the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact sought to create a military alliance between the Soviet Union and Eastern European nations.
Proxy wars of the Cold War were seen in Vietnam, Korea and Afghanistan.
In comparing the tactics and strategies of World War I to World War II, World War II was more mobile and dynamic because of the use of planes and tanks.
An initial action taken by Hitler in his struggle against German Jews was the Nuremburg Laws.
An initial result of the Soviets launch of Sputnik was that American school children had to learn more math and science.
The Rosenberg spy case and McCarthyism helped to create paranoia about communism in America.
Communist leader Alexander Dubcek initiated the “Prague Spring” with a series of reforms in Czechoslovakia in 1968.
In political history, the term “détente” refers to improved relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in the 1970s.
The Polish national trade union Solidarity was founded in Gdansk and led by Lech Walesa.
If McDonalds buys up all of the other major retail fast food hamburger chains, it would be a horizontal monopoly.
If McDonalds buys up all the cattle farms, slaughter houses, wheat farms and bread makers as well as all the potato farms and then buys a shipping company to transport the goods to the restaurants, it would be a vertical monopoly.