African Nationalism Video
Ghana - 7years to prepare, peaceful transition, became a model for other African nations
Nkruma goes from prison to president, believes in Pan-Africanism, Britain realizes that colonies can make transition to self-rule
Settler colony, whites resist change, Mau Mau uprising 400,000 African deaths, 50 British deaths, concentrations camps created for “Mau Mau” and their supporters,
Kenyatta- freed from jail to become president
Settler colony, violent war for independence between guerrilla army 7000 French troops, lasted nearly 10 years, 1 million dead, nearly causes civil war in France, Arabs lose many young leaders
Congo – given 6 months to prepare for self-rule, only 3 government leaders had college education, riots break out
Lumumba: first elected president, had socialist policies, overthrown by military that was backed by the west, killed
Mbuto Sese Seko: preferred by the U.S., becomes brutal dictator, changes name of nation to Zaire
Tanzania - peaceful transfer of power,
Nyrere: supported pan-Africanism and played important role in formation of AOU (Organization of African Unity)
Nigeria- ten years to prepare for peaceful transition
Guinea Bissau – small Portuguese holding, violent revolt against brutal Portuguese army, west refuses to help Africans because Portugal is a NATO ally so Cabral gets help from USSR
Cabral: well educated, able commander, assassinated
Mozambique – part of the region is settler colony, Portugal fights to keep colony
Machel: leader of guerrilla fighters, clever leader, despite ruthless air-strikes Frelimo rebels won. Many civilian deaths- whole villages destroyed, 1975 Portuguese leave
Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) –
Smith (UDI): Unilateral Declaration of Independence,
Mugabe: led resistance to white power, armed struggle, economic sanctions, 1980 won independence.
South Africa – Apartheid system denied writes to blacks and coloreds.
Mandela-leader of ANC, imprisoned for 27 years, non-violence does nt work, massacres by police leads to violent action, after Soweto students shot, sanctions and condemnation by the rest of the world forced the end of Apartheid, Manndela freed in 1990 becomes president in 1994.